Paper Title
Prevalence of High Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (Mar) Bacterial Isolates From Mangroves With Reference to Calicut Zones, Kerala

Tropical mangroves are among the most productive ecosystems in the world, being characterized by high rate of organic matter and nutrient cycling. In mangrove sediment, the microorganisms play an important role in the productivity, conservation, and supply plant and animals with primary nutritional sources. Increase in antibiotic resistance has become more serious because of the dissemination by the various mobile elements by horizontal gene transfer and the antibiotic therapy in medical filed, in future may turn ineffective . In recent years, the microbial communities of mangroves have been assessed using a range of techniques, including classical cultivation approach, and antibiotic resistance activity. Considering the importance and complexity of mangrove ecosystems, description of the distribution and composition of bacterial communities in sediments would lead us to a better comprehension of the ecosystem dynamics. In the present study, in order to obtain a better insight into the mangrove micro biome and drug resistance profiles, we assessed the bacterial community in the mangroves of Calicut zones . This work highlights the importance of microbial ecology studies in mangrove environments and provides information that can be suitable for future development of sustainable approaches for the ecosystem preservation. The objective of the study was to assess the antibiotic resistance in the bacterial isolates from water samples collected from Mangroves, and characterize the drug resistance profiles of bacterial isolates in relation to their nature and pattern of drug resistance towards the general antibiotics . Consumption of raw or improperly cooked sea foods or fishes from the Mangroves thus becomes a great threat to human health. The occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance index of bacterial isolates from water samples and soil samples that collected from Mangroves of Calicut in Kerala, India were investigated. Vibrio spp. enumeration was performed on thiosulfate-citrate-bile-salts-sucrose-agar by the serial dilution and identification was done through a biochemical protocol. All the isolates were tested for the presence of Gram staining, oxidase, catalase activity and antibiotic susceptibility by conventional methods. Among the bacterial isolates from the samples analyse it was observed that. 96 % strains were multiple drug resistant and 4% susceptible to the antibiotics studied. The pattern of resistance percentage among the bacterial isolates to any the antibiotics tested studied is found to be 68% were resistant to Penicillin, 32 % were resistant to Vancomycin,28 % were resistant to Erythromycin,20% were resistant to Gentamicin and Cefotaxime ,16% were resistant to Ciprofloxacin, Tetracyclin, Nalidixic Acid, Chloramphenicol, 12% were resistant to streptomycin But Amoxicillin resistance was observed in only 4 % of the isolates tested. These results demonstrate the presence of potentially drug resistant bacterial isolates in mangroves of Calicut zone of the Kerala samples increases the risk of infection due to water exposure. The findings of the present investigation may help to understand the gravity of the drug resistance problem and may lead to devise a antibiotic policy. Strict regulations for the rough use of antibiotics in animal husbandry and aquaculture could be necessary to curtail any further increase in antibiotic resistance in the Mangrove ecosystem. Keywords - MAR Index, Bacteria isolates, Antibiotic resistance, Mangroves of Calicut