Identification of Sources of Wet and Bulk Precipitation in Urban Area of Karnataka, India
Wet and bulk (wet and dry) precipitation samples were collected at Bangalore north (Hebbal), Bangalore south (Jayanagar), Mysore and Mandya in Karnataka state, India by using wet and bulk precipitation collectors, during the year 2005-2007. pH and concentrations of major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4+-N) and anions (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, NO3--N, NO2-N and PO43--P), were determined and predominant ions were identified. The study reveals that pH of bulk samples is always higher then wet only sample, which indicates the influence of dry deposition. The study reveals that acid rain established in Bangalore north (Hebbal), whereas other urban area are received alkaline nature of precipitation The factor analysis for the chemical elements H+,Ca2+, NH4+, SO42-, and NO3-, in samples of wet and bulk precipitation identified the following sources- industries, automobiles, wastewater treatment plants, soil derivatives, natural loss by plants and biomass burning.
Keywords - pH, Acid rain, wet & bulk precipitation, pollution, factor analysis.