Paper Title
Embodied Energy of Aggregates and Masonry Units produced around Bengaluru, India

The activities associated with the production of construction materials consume huge amounts of energy whilst also contributing to carbon dioxide emission. Often, these materials need to be refined by complex processes involving mining, modifying, synthesizing, blending, burning, crushing/pulverizing etc. and eventually transported to the place of construction before being used as a component in a structure. Major building materials are cement, aggregates, masonry units and reinforcement apart from the many finishing and servicing items. Concrete constitutes to one of the massively used material in almost all the structural components and the aggregates constitute to the bulk of its volume. Similarly, masonry units like bricks and blocks constitute to a major percentage of material used in a building. Together, aggregates and masonry units are the most voluminous and massive amongst all the other materials used in a building. It is therefore important to identify the process of manufacture of aggregates (coarse aggregates and fine aggregates) and masonry and compute the energy associated with each of the process. Summing up this energy will be useful in eventually quantifying the embodied energy of buildings and structures. This paper presents the quantification of embodied energy of aggregates and two types of masonry units from local sources around Bengaluru. The principle of ‘cradle-to-gate’ analysis has been considered. In order to carry out this computation extensive field studies and data collection was needed. The presented values can be utilized for computation of embodied energy of the bulk of the building stock in and around Bengaluru, India. Keywords - Building materials, Embodied Energy, Aggregates, Masonry units